New Jersey passed a law providing for the “gradual emancipation of slaves” on February 15, 1804, and in doing so became the last Northern state to begin the process of ending enslavement within its borders. Using the language of bondage, the 1804 act provided that children of enslaved people born after July 4, 1804, would be freed when they reached the age of 21 for women and the age of 15 for men.
As the rest of the country acted to abolish slavery by ratifying the Thirteenth Amendment, states such as Delaware, Kentucky, and the Territory of Oklahoma refused to ratify. Delaware’s General Assembly refused to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, calling it an illegal extension of federal power over the state.
On February 9, 1960, just four weeks before her graduation, a bomb exploded at the home of Carlotta Walls, the youngest member of the original “Little Rock Nine,” who integrated Little Rock Central High School in 1957.
Maple syrup from the 200+ mature maple trees on Stamford Museum & Nature Center 118-acre campus… added attractions, enhanced programming, and fun seasonal offerings, including traditional favorites like maple syrup treats and tree tapping demonstrations!
The competition is open to all middle school students sixth through eighth grade in the Tristate area.
Participants will be tasked to write a story of a fictional event taking place at the Lockwood-Mathews Mansion between 1868 and 1938. The cast of characters must include a doctor or scientist who became famous or infamous during the mid-to-late 19th century and members of the Lockwood or Mathews families. Young writers will learn about the families’ history, read biographies of the doctors and scientists, and explore the rooms in the Mansion where the event described could have taken place, using the Museum’s website as a reference. Students will create a short story that will include at least one doctor or scientist weaved into this narrative, and can introduce fictional friends visiting the Mansion as well.
On the evening of January 30, 1956, one month after the beginning of the Montgomery bus boycott, the home of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was bombed while his wife Coretta, seven-week-old daughter Yolanda, and a neighbor were inside. The front of the home was damaged but no one was injured.
In November 1881, a jury in Clarke County, Alabama, convicted Tony Pace, a Black man, and Mary Cox, a white woman, under section 4189 of the Alabama Code, which criminalized “fornication” and “adultery” between persons of different races and outlawed interracial marriage. Pace and Cox were sentenced to two years in prison.
On January 22, 1883, the United States Supreme Court in United States v. Harris dismissed indictments against a Tennessee sheriff and his accomplices accused of attacking four Black men and killing one. The Court held that the Force Act, a federal law passed to protect Black Americans from violent terrorism, was unconstitutional because the Fourteenth Amendment limited Congress to taking remedial steps against state action that violated the Fourteenth Amendment and applied only to acts by states, not to acts of individuals.
On January 18, 1771, the North Carolina General Assembly approved the disbursement of public funds to enslavers as compensation for the executions of Black people they held in bondage. Nearly a dozen enslavers received money from the state, including a white man in Duplin County who was given eighty pounds—the equivalent of over $18,000 today—following the government-led execution of a man he enslaved by the name of George.
In the immediate aftermath of the infamous Nat Turner slave rebellion in Virginia, Alabama passed a statute in 1833 that made it unlawful for free Black people to settle in Alabama. That statute provided that freed Black people found in Alabama would be given thirty days to vacate the state. After thirty days, they could be subject to a penalty of thirty-nine lashes and receive an additional twenty-day period to leave the state. After that period had expired, the free person could be sold back into slavery with proceeds of the sale going to the state and those who participated in apprehending him or her.
In the early morning hours of January 10, 1966, two carloads of armed Ku Klux Klan members drove onto the property of Vernon Dahmer and his family, ten miles outside of Hattiesburg, Mississippi. The white men set fire to the Dahmers’ grocery store and house and blasted the buildings with gunfire. Mrs. Dahmer and three of their children managed to escape, but Mr. Dahmer sustained fatal lung damage while holding off attackers as his family fled; he died later that day.
On January 5, 1923, a mob of over 200 white men attacked the Black community in Rosewood, Florida, killing over 30 Black women, men, and children, burning the town to the ground, and forcing all survivors to permanently flee Rosewood.
On December 25, 1956, Ku Klux Klan members in Alabama bombed the home of civil rights activist Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth. Rev. Shuttlesworth was home at the time of the bombing with his family and two members of Bethel Baptist Church, where he served as pastor. The 16-stick dynamite blast destroyed the home and caused damage to Rev. Shuttlesworth’s church next door but no one inside the home suffered serious injury. White supremacists would attempt to murder Rev. Shuttlesworth four more times in the next seven years. In an attack in 1957, a white mob brutally beat Rev. Shuttlesworth with chains and bats and stabbed his wife after the couple attempted to enroll their daughters in an all-white high school.
On December 24, 1865, a group of former Confederate soldiers established what would become the first chapter of the Ku Klux Klan, or KKK, in Pulaski, Tennessee. Named for the Greek word “kyklos,” which means circle, the KKK was devoted to white supremacy and to ending Reconstruction in the South. It soon became America’s first domestic terrorist group. The Klan’s first leader, called a Grand Wizard, was former Confederate Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest.
This Challenge is open to college and graduate students to promote the field of implementation science to the next generation of researchers and offer mentoring and research training. Implementation science is the scientific study of methods and strategies that facilitate the uptake or adoption and integration of evidence-based practices, interventions, programs, policies, and research into regular use by practitioners, health systems, communities, and policymakers. The training and mentoring experiences of the Challenge will enhance SCD research knowledge for students through the creation of Tools for sickle cell disease education. The Challenge is in line with the NHLBI Center for Translation Research and Implementation Science (CTRIS) roadmaps to build capacity and increase awareness of sickle cell disease. This Challenge also encourages “team science” by providing students valuable experiences to pursue science collectively as they engage in complex problem solving to improve outcomes.
On December 21, 1837, following an anti-slavery speech by Vermont representative William Slade, the U.S. House of Representatives overwhelmingly passed a rule that prohibited any future discussion about the abolition of slavery in the House. The rule remained in effect until 1844, preventing the topic of abolition from even being discussed for almost a decade.
On December 5, 1910, Chief Justice Shepard of the District Court of Appeals in Washington D.C., ruled that Isabel Wall, an eight-year-old girl, was prohibited from attending the local white public school because she was 1/16th Black. The court held that any child with an “admixture of colored blood” would be classified as such; thus, Isabel would be made to attend a separate school for Black children.
On December 4, 1917, U.S. Secretary of War Newton D. Baker, who had received numerous complaints from Black soldiers regarding their widespread mistreatment while serving in the military, publicly denied that Black soldiers were subjected to discrimination or an “unfair share of manual labor” while serving in the U.S. Army. He dismissed the soldiers’ complaints as “overworked hysteria” and “German propaganda.”
The Fellowships for Advanced Social Science Research on Japan program is a joint activity of the Japan – United States Friendship Commission (JUSFC) and the National Endowment for the Humanities.
The program aims to promote Japan studies in the United States, to encourage U.S. – Japanese scholarly exchange, and to support the next generation of Japan scholars in the United States.
Awards support research on modern Japanese society and political economy, Japan’s international relations, and U.S. – Japan relations. The program encourages innovative research that puts these subjects in wider regional and global contexts and is comparative and contemporary in nature.
Research should contribute to scholarly knowledge or to the general public’s understanding of issues of concern to Japan and the United States.
Appropriate disciplines for the research include anthropology, economics, geography, history, international relations, linguistics, political science, psychology, and sociology.
Awards usually result in articles, monographs, books, e-books, digital materials, translations, editions, or other scholarly resources.